Hydrocephalus is not a disease but a condition and has several causes. Congenital (inborn) hydrocephalus occurs in one or two of every 1,000 babies born in the U.S. Hydrocephalus is the most common reason for brain surgery in children.
What are the chances of having a baby with hydrocephalus?
Hydrocephalus occurs in approximately one out of 500 births. The following are the primary reasons why hydrocephalus occurs: Blockage of the CSF flow inside of the head.
What is the most common cause of hydrocephalus in infants?
The most common cause of acquired hydrocephalus in infants is hemorrhage, most often as a consequence of prematurity. Other important causes include neoplasm and infection, usually bacterial meningitis.
Does hydrocephalus go away in babies?
As a result, children with this condition often benefit from developmental therapy, such as physical therapy and occupational therapy. In milder cases, or instances where treatment was previously possible, a baby with hydrocephalus may develop completely normally.
How do I know if my baby has hydrocephalus?
The most obvious sign of hydrocephalus in infants is a rapid increase in head circumference or an unusually large head size. Other symptoms may include seizures, vomiting, sleepiness, irritability, or eyes that constantly gaze downward.
How long do babies with hydrocephalus live?
What is the life expectancy of a child who has hydrocephalus? Children often have a full life span if hydrocephalus is caught early and treated. Infants who undergo surgical treatment to reduce the excess fluid in the brain and survive to age 1 will not have a shortened life expectancy due to hydrocephalus.
How can I prevent hydrocephalus in pregnancy?
You can’t prevent hydrocephalus, but you can lower your risk and your child’s risk for developing the condition in the following ways:
- Prenatal care. Make sure you get prenatal care during pregnancy.
- Safety equipment.
- Buying safe gear for younger children.
When do babies develop hydrocephalus?
A healthcare provider may first spot this condition in your baby during an ultrasound in pregnancy. In many cases, hydrocephalus doesn’t develop until the third trimester of the pregnancy. Ultrasounds done earlier in pregnancy may not show this condition. Your child may be diagnosed with this condition after birth.
Can you live a normal life with hydrocephalus?
What is the prognosis? If left untreated, hydrocephalus can be fatal. Early diagnosis and successful treatment improve the chance for a good recovery. With the benefits of surgery, rehabilitative therapies, and educational interventions, many people with hydrocephalus live relatively normal lives.
What is the survival rate of hydrocephalus?
Survival in untreated hydrocephalus is poor. Approximately, 50% of the affected patients die before three years of age and approximately 80% die before reaching adulthood. Treatment markedly improves the outcome for hydrocephalus not associated with tumors, with 89% and 95% survival in two case studies.
Can hydrocephalus be prevented?
Although hydrocephalus cannot be prevented, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk. Guard against infections by following recommendations for vaccinations and screenings for your age and sex. Prevent and promptly treat infections and other illnesses.
Can a child outgrow a shunt?
A young child or infant will “outgrow the shunt,” or the shunt will slowly change its position in relation to the ventricular system due to growth of the brain, sometimes requiring the tubing to be lengthened (shunt revision).
Can folic acid prevent hydrocephalus?
Scientists at The University of Manchester and Lancaster University say laboratory tests have shown that administering a combination of vitamins (tetrahydrofolate and folinic acid), dramatically reduces the risk of hydrocephalus.
Is hydrocephalus genetic?
Hydrocephalus can be inherited genetically, may be associated with developmental disorders, like spina bifida or encephalocele, or occur as a result of brain tumors, head injuries, hemorrhage or diseases such as meningitis.
Is hydrocephalus a birth defect?
Hydrocephalus is one of the most common “birth defects” affecting more than 10,000 babies each year. One out of every 500 newborns has hydrocephalus.
What causes hydrocephalus during pregnancy?
The most common causes of congenital hydrocephalus are: Spina bifida. Aqueductal stenosis. Brain malformations.
How serious is brain shunt surgery?
A shunt blockage can be very serious as it can lead to an build-up of excess fluid in the brain, which can cause brain damage. This will cause the symptoms of hydrocephalus. Emergency surgery will be needed to replace the malfunctioning shunt.
How long does a shunt last in the brain?
It is difficult to predict how long shunts will last, but some practitioners note that about half of all shunts need to be revised or replaced after 6 years.
Can a child with hydrocephalus live a normal life?
There is no cure for hydrocephalus, but with timely diagnosis and treatment, children with hydrocephalus can lead normal lives. They will require close care from physicians, neurosurgeons and sometimes neurologists as well.
Does a shunt cure hydrocephalus?
Although there is currently no cure for hydrocephalus, a shunt, like those from Medtronic, can help relieve some of the symptoms of the condition.
Can you live a normal life with a shunt?
Many people with normal pressure hydrocephalus enjoy a normal life with the help of a shunt. Regular, ongoing checkups with the neurosurgeon will help ensure that your shunt is working correctly, your progress is on track, and you are free to keep living the way you want.
What are the three causes of hydrocephalus?
The three main causes of hydrocephalus are: A blockage. Tumors, cysts, birth defects, and other objects in the brain can block or affect the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
What happens if a baby has fluid on the brain?
Most CSF is found in fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. Its purpose is to cushion and protect the brain and the spinal cord. Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate.
What causes a baby to have fluid on the brain?
The most common causes of congenital hydrocephalus are: Spina bifida and other brain and spinal cord (neural tube) defects. A narrowing of the small passage between the third and fourth ventricles of your brain (aqueductal stenosis). Complications of premature birth, such as bleeding within ventricles.
How can I help my child with hydrocephalus?
7 Tips for Caring for a Child with Hydrocephalus
- Build a Support Network.
- Learn How to Monitor a Shunt.
- Do Not Let Them Play with Magnets.
- Pay Close Attention to Their Development.
- Be Aware That They May Need Special Education.
- Recognize Emergencies.
- Teach Your Child About Hydrocephalus.
What happens if you don’t take folic acid during pregnancy?
If you do not get enough folic acid before and during pregnancy, your baby is at higher risk for neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects that affect the spine, spinal cord, or brain and may cause death. These include: Spina bifida.
Can being overweight cause hydrocephalus?
In addition to increasing the risk of NTD (and subsequently associated hydrocephalus), being very overweight or obese also increases the risk of premature birth, thus increasing the risk of hydrocephalus as a result of IVH.
Is hydrocephalus caused by inbreeding?
Inbreeding seemed to be more of the etiologic factor in fetuses as they occurred in 31% of the cases (Fig. 1). Every diagnosis of hydrocephalus with other anomalies in all other organs and systems is regarded as associated hydrocephalus.
Does hydrocephalus cause mental retardation?
Learning disabilities are among the most common complications for people with hydrocephalus. Intelligence levels can range from mild to severe mental retardation.
Is hydrocephalus more common in boys or girls?
Genetics. In very rare circumstances, hydrocephalus is due to hereditary factors, which may affect future generations, such as X-linked hydrocephalus. This condition, only affects boys, but girls have a chance of passing the gene to their children.
Does hydrocephalus cause autism?
Conclusion: The majority of children with hydrocephalus have behavioural problems and many have autism. It is therefore important to assess and understand all the aspects of cognition and behaviour in these children in order to minimise disability and enhance participation for the child.
Can hydrocephalus be misdiagnosed?
The Hydrocephalus Association estimates that nearly 700,000 adults have normal pressure hydrocephalus, but it is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. In fact, less than 20 percent of people with the disease are properly diagnosed.
How does hydrocephalus appear on ultrasound?
How is the condition diagnosed? During a prenatal ultrasound between 15 and 35 weeks gestation, your physician can see whether the ventricles in the baby’s brain are enlarged and whether there is evidence of increased pressure within the brain. If so, then hydrocephalus may be diagnosed.
What is the most common cause of hydrocephalus in utero?
True fetal hydrocephalus has a variety of causes. The most common form of isolated, obstructive hydrocephalus is so-called “aqueductal stenosis,” which is the blockage of CSF passage through the aqueduct of Sylvius. It accounts for up to 20 percent of cases of fetal hydrocephalus.
Can ultrasound detect brain damage in baby?
Neonatal cranial ultrasound is considered the gold-standard screening method for neonatal brain injury, for the detection of major or significant abnormalities of the brain, most notably severe IVH or cystic periventricular leukomalacia in the preterm infant.
Is VP shunt a high risk surgery?
Risks of VP shunting
Placement of a shunt is a very safe procedure. However, complications can occur during or after the procedure. Risks associated with any surgical procedure include excessive bleeding and infection.
Is shunt surgery painful?
During VP shunt surgery, the doctor placed two small tubes (catheters) and a valve under your skin. After surgery, your neck or belly may feel tender. You will probably feel tired, but you should not have much pain.
What can’t you do with a shunt?
However, people with LP shunts should avoid any activity which involves twisting at the waist, as this can dislodge the shunt.
- Martial arts. Any activity that involves being grabbed around the neck is not advised, as the shunt tubing in the neck can crack.
- Gymnastics and dance.
- Water sports.
- Other activities.
How serious is having a shunt put in?
A shunt is permanent, but because it can malfunction, it may have to be repaired or replaced throughout a person’s life. Other rare but serious problems can include infection and bleeding, usually within the first few weeks after the surgery.
How successful is shunt surgery for hydrocephalus?
There is a 40% shunt failure rate in children within the first 2 years of placement necessitating a shunt revision. A shunt may need to be replaced because of an infection or blockage, or because the shunt valve stops working properly.
Is shunt surgery brain surgery?
Shunt surgery is done by a specialist in brain and nervous system surgery (neurosurgeon). It’s done under a general anaesthetic and usually takes 1 to 2 hours. You may need to stay in hospital for a few days after the operation to recover. If you have stitches, they may dissolve or need to be removed.
Can hydrocephalus be cured without surgery?
There is currently no prevention or cure, but it can be managed with surgery. Traditionally, hydrocephalus is treated with a shunt, a device that allows excess CSF to be “shunted” (moved) to another area of the body.
Can water on the brain be cured?
Hydrocephalus is a chronic condition. It can be controlled, but usually not cured. With appropriate early treatment, however, many people with hydrocephalus lead normal lives with few limitations. Hydrocephalus can occur at any age, but is most common in infants and adults age 60 and older.
How serious is water on the brain?
Contents. Hydrocephalus is a build-up of fluid in the brain. The excess fluid puts pressure on the brain, which can damage it. If left untreated, hydrocephalus can be fatal.
What is mild hydrocephalus?
Hydrocephalus, also called water in the brain, is a condition where there is an abnormal build up of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in the cavities (ventricles) of the brain. The build-up is often caused by an obstruction that prevents proper fluid drainage.